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tv   Doc Film - On Bananas and Republics  Deutsche Welle  June 22, 2018 7:15am-8:01am CEST

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d.w. made for mines. crimes fist against humanity. and civilians she come within six feet. up. there recording which is travel around the globe just social media. but what is propaganda fiction and what is fact digital investigators combed through the flood of images they combine sources try to reconstruct what happened and substantiate claims of crimes thanks to this video recording of the soldier who shot the young man is on trial now st. paul's forensics between bits and bytes. truth detectives starts june thirtieth on t w.
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this is the story of a fruit a simple fruit available all year round all around the world. this is the story of a fruit on which an empire was built one of the first multinationals the united fruit company. in the morning to get the booth. when i eat a banana sundae. obvious is the story of a fruit that changed the destiny of central america and gave its name to republics it became notorious it became the symbol of all that's wrong with american capitalism. this is a tale of economics and politics
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a story about globalization. this is the story of a fruit a simple friend the but none of. her. it all began in eighteen seventy one when the government in costa rica asked to sell some minor cooper keith from new york to build a railway. it was to link the caribbean coast to the high plateau changed through the jungle. but nothing went as planned. the jungle was merciless. that one accident scorpions malaria four thousand men died and just forty kilometers of
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railway track were completed. and off to a stock market crash that owns dried up. costa rica could no longer pay its debts the railway remained on finished myna faced financial ruin. he didn't know then that fortune was right there at his feet in the human soil of the jungle in this simple fruit that fed his workers lebannon. first the simple food of workers the banana appeared at the turn of the century at
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markets in the united states it was a prize delicacy. expensive because it was rare and perishable. anyone who managed to transport it quickly enough before it could ripe and rot could turn it into gold. miner recognized that very soon he was exporting bananas and he was saved from bankruptcy. he struck an agreement with the government in costa rica he would finish work on the railway in return he asked for the right to use the line and receive ownership of large plots of land. land to grow bananas. trains for transporting them quickly and cheaply. the foundation of his fortune.
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in eight hundred ninety nine mine i entered a partnership with two men from boston he had the plantations and railways his associates provided a fleet of ships and a distribution network across the u.s. on march the thirty year eight hundred ninety nine they founded the united fruit company. y. working to finish over more international was a company which owns and controls assets in more than one country i would say it's among the first of the multinationals in this kind of like primary commodity type of of of business and it's really taking the process of fertile integration to quite quite an extreme x. extent including you know constructing what's going to become one of the biggest shipping fleets in actually in in the world and integrating right down through to
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dish to be. in the united states so it's really quite quite extreme at this time but they're pioneering in a more fundamental way because this company is actually creating a market for going on us as well as pioneering how to deliver the product to that consumer so in eight hundred ninety nobody in the united states really knew what a banana was basically. by nine hundred fourteen you can buy been on as in virtually all big american towns. tasting nourishing fall a victim of the united fruit company had a flair for promoting bananas. mothers with families were the target the company published recipes and paid pediatricians to praise the bananas
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nutritional values. very soon americans could no longer do without them. imported in huge quantities they were low in price and widely accessible. as a delicate storms floods and heatwaves regularly destroyed crops bananas threatened to become scarce. and.
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their. mine and his associates knew they needed to grow. evermore bananas over a much larger area right across central america and. former spanish colonies these countries had won their independence of the beginning of the nineteenth century but the united states regarded them as a natural extension of its own market. for the united fruit company this was one single territory completely given over to growing but not. just the united fruit company itself kept on growing. it needed more and more land.
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in panama and costa rica local farmers but i think that. the supply slashing the prices bananas it grows more producers live with used to give up their banana plantations into financial really step by step they took over hundreds of thousands of hectares of central america's biggest land. is just exactly as he said basically from agree on what they're in is exactly what happened during the land reforms in britain from the sixteenth until the eighteenth century so we think. the british royal marines were expropriated in the same way there is no other word for it. of course immediately you the lands which they call debated started to have fences put up around it. and by the eighteenth century they were forced to give up their workforce to the new factories. this was the origin of industry and economy as we know them today it was the beginning of modern day
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capitalism. did the united fruit company introduce capitalism to central america. it certainly had a specific vision of development and progress from the start. the railway laid the foundations for minor cooper keats huge wealth. for the young dangers of central america it was synonymous with modernity. guatemala wanted it sound railway but the country was in debt and when the price of coffee in its primary resource collapsed it became insolvent plans to build a railway were put on ice. in one thousand and three.
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approached the one person who could help miner cooper. he agreed to build a railway in return as usual he demanded land for banana plantations have the right to walk rate the railway for his own needs he also acquired control over the country's main port and the telegraph network. in other words guatemala gave away in the united fruit company its infrastructure its economy and its future in exchange for a railway. the company's empire grew to the detriment of the young nations in search of progress but with numerous sources and indicates.
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that people in the dirt of the poor helps line the pockets of the rich. privatizing the entire public sector through debt mechanism is the act of expropriation of common property that typically land for the profit of a limited few could mean to be one of their own. to banana growing nations in the caribbean also bound themselves one after the other to the company. each time the company managed to pay little or no taxes in the countries in which is operated draining their resources even more and assuring their dependence. on a case of the united fruit cadres with wonderful tax free concessions and things but honestly practically every western company all over latin america and asia
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had the same at the same conditions basically they had the bargaining power they had the technological advantage and the money these places wanted them and the deal was very little taxes. in our age tax avoidance or tax planning as it as it's called in business schools has become a central feature of business globally and that's a quite different situation from when you know developing fragile states in the one nine hundred centuries we're offering low tax low taxes now it's the core of business limiting us in. a multinational can easily avoid fiscal legislation in the sovereign states where it operates by using a method which is well known today transfer prices where profits show up in the
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countries with the lowest tax levels of body uki so we prefer the law this is a political issue and we want this money to be given back to the public authorities to be used for the common good. or do we continue to allow our state's fiscal revenue to be siphoned off by multinationals so it's a global issue the song up and it. has been known i had come a long way a simple fruit had led to an economic empire which became the forerunner of a modern day multinational. you leave in his nineteen zero four novel cabbages and kings the american writer henry described a fictional state controlled by a fruit company and creative expression republic. united
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fruit plantations formed worlds of their own. by the laws of the company. segregated society. on the one side the damages graduates from the best universities. the foreman from the south of the united
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states who brought with them their knowledge of slave culture. the banana plantations was their domain an american enclave in the tropics. an isolated social entity with its own way of life. telegram dated twenty ninth of may nine hundred nineteen to the united fruit company head office lost lot of labor. mostly criminal. useless laborers from costa rica panama and they corralled. continue sending
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jamaican laborers. the laborers on the plantations constituted the work force an entity which required organizing. the jamaicans were prize for their strength and enjoyment they were importing sentient speak and their tens of thousands from the island of jamaica and herded around from plantation to plantation. to no coals were relegated to domestic chores. the hispanics viewed with suspicion in. the company preferred up rooted in the isolated and don't file workers unions were forbidden. entire towns or
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had to rebuild by the company draw hours these workers sometimes frosh once had to be drained. the company avoided taxes but prided itself on creating entire villages in the jungle in. each house the workers and their families. build clinics and hospitals. open schools where the labor is children. wages were often paid in vouchers which labor is could use only in the. shops to buy food clothing sun ature and tools.
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but although the company controlled every moment in its employees lives to months started to be made for a six day week and an eight hour working day unemployment benefits and salaries paid in cash. on rest was spreading and banana land. in october one thousand nine hundred twenty eight was at the some time mobster plantation in colombia went on strike. after negotiations failed workers occupied company buildings on the plantation. the colombian government sent in the army over a thousand people died. the suppression of the sons of martyr strikes became known as the banana massacre an important historical event for colombia and central
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america the symbol of state submission with use of its public forces in the interests of a foreign company i was . from then on throughout the caribbean the united fruit company was simply referred to as the octopus. in june one thousand nine hundred twenty nine mile cooper keith died in costa rica . he left behind a huge jump. with one hundred thousand employees and over a million hectares of plantations. in one thousand and ten he had bought up the
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british isles ala fifes and gained access to the european market at the time of mine a cooper keith's death united fruit company controlled seventy five percent of the global banana trade. a few competitors existed but the united fruit company tolerated them in order to avoid the us laws on monopolies. the core young male fruit company was the company's main rival at its head was samuel's the marry. a tall and gruff man with a strong russian accent he was seen as a visionary capable of making bananas grow on the most hostile land. in one thousand nine hundred ten he had overturned the government of honduras which
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had tried to get his way and he didn't hide the fact he became a legend. his rags to riches story began on ellis island in eight hundred ninety two. the money started out of the docks of mobile alabama a port on the gulf of mexico. he saw the united fruit ships on loading bananas and watch the traders that's where. he learned to spot the fruit no one else wanted the right bananas which weren't suitable for distant markets. he made a bulk purchase for next to nothing. he hired a wagon and over the following three days' journey through this. southern states he sold his entire stock at the railway stations there just for his first trip here
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hundred forty dollars. santa the banana man had arrived. samuel the murray challenge the united fruit company until finally his competition became too troublesome for them. in november one thousand nine hundred ninety accepted a merger united fruit bought out his company korea merrill samuel received thirty million dollars worth of united fruit company shares. if this made him one of the richest men in the united states and also united fruit biggest shareholder. in one nine hundred thirty three he dismissed the company's board of directors and took single handed control as one magazine headline put it budget owner who
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swallowed the whale. at fifty six years of age samuel summary was the uncontested king of bananas. was an empire cannot stand still if it doesn't grow it fails. the second world war froze international trade. but the post-war era brought the promise of reconstruction economic growth and new markets for united for its bananas summary found just the man to conquer these markets edward bernays a pioneer of his own kind and a master. of public relations and advertising. about who could shape reality
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according to his client's wishes. in the one nine hundred twenty s. edward bernays had persuaded american women to start smoking convincing them that the cigarette was a torch of liberty the instrument of their emancipation. back then he was for the powerful american tobacco company. it is a book entitled propaganda edward bernays defend it in his own words the conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses by an enlightened minority. could it have been his uncle sigmund freud who helped him understand so well beyond that in a consumer society advertising was the key to creating consumer wishes which could be nurtured stimulated add in for nice and. for
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samuel's and marie he made of a nano the fruit of the american dream. you know you're right but mammals. time to give them banana and i've found they can and they have it right and in a certain way when they're playing when brown and i have a golden new fan anastase the best and i have a very very. tricky to banana became a household name. you know when i get my dear greenish way or looking into it you are ripe for cooking and to keep the man i am. glad they rarely generators is the way i am to keep them and i am a come back you really shouldn't treat a feral man its weight if you like to leave. it eating habits really are to blame. yes.
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chiquita banana is ideal world everybody looks the same tasted the same the company produced only one variety that call me chef. tasty fruity and hearty out there for exportable demand kept on growing. but it is not among the right conditions for me but honestly. it is also necessary to buy because i'm free to decisions that are an old foundation. on the plantations weakened by intensive monoculture to their owners parasites were spreading panama disease and yellows the. chiquita banana swaying hips couldn't hide the reality the empire was rotting probably inside. samuel's or barry had tons of pesticide sprayed over the banana
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plots up to thirty times a year. those who volunteered for the job received extra pay they were known as their vinen arrows the poison us. very soon and their skin took on a blue chip they fell ill doesn't start. the lifetime of a plantation fell from ten to three year those infected by parasites what abandoned . more juggle was cut down to create new plantations. it was as if united fruit had taken over the whole of central america you. believe. the opposite you're not
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producing forcing but it's remarkable because it is a parable of the perverse effects of capitalism and the logic of accumulation after all the logic intrinsic to capitalism is the accumulation of capital of which there is no foreseeable end with the idea that the resources being used are endless. crystal many think that if this example shows that the company should have realised that doing this was not in its interests if you get it all under the corporate market in that you get people dying in a bid to maintain a machine which harms the environment and in regard to sustainability in the economic sense is pointless if they couldn't make this happen or. schnabel security in the end destroy this self-perpetuating logic required someone who is in charge to step in and say stop us renounced. we need to do this differently or that
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it will increase or come on you want to. hire a. real bring the free feel good i mean look at him for what in very workable in one thousand nine hundred forty four a revolution in guatemala put an end to the fourteen year rule of the dictator jorge will be calling him the ones i don't know what are your thoughts on the money if you're a dictator was a good friend of the united fruit company. who precocious saw himself as the reincarnation of napoleon. and fearing a loss of power had to bend to the use of the words strike petition and union.
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he believed in forced labor for the poorest and the lowest wages possible. the contract he signed with united fruit a highly favorable for the company. as. large a national as like you noted for the sword stability for its for its investments democracies can be very unstable i mean there's a reason why multinational investment is very low in india and the reason is it's democracy where there are multiple parties is always sort of checking deal was negotiating everything and that's that's a veritable. nightmare for multinationals and they preferred or per se operate in china for example where provided the communist party approves of your activities you'll have a high degree of stability and things will basically you won't run into any sort of
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trouble so i think that i think that's what multinationals are after some sort of security and stability and to imported taters or the communist party can give you can give you that. with its promise of workers' rights and a minimum wage guatemalan revolution no longer made the country viable for united fruit. in one nine hundred fifty one democratic elections brought taco bell arbenz to park . out of bed and set about putting into practice the first promise of the revolution amanda reform program which would redistribute the land of the large
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scale owners to small farms. but at the top of the list of large earners with more than two thirds of the country's agricultural land was the united fruit company. president of ben's issued a decree to confiscate hundreds of thousands of hectares of land kept in reserve by the company. he indemnities were based on the company's low tax declarations which never revealed its real profits. never before had united fruit been challenged in this way. as a young man samuels a murray had overturned a troublesome government this time with no mercenaries at hand he once again turned to his p.r. genius edward bernays and told him to deal with outer bands. sideways
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was again to employ his talents of creating his own form of reality. he set about making the protection of united fruits private interests in guatemala an issue for the us government thanks. edward bernays was to create a fiction for nineteen fifties america submerged in the cold war. was out of work with political talk about. how kabul our band this was a social democrat nationalist and reformer. but nays depicted him as a communist true to moscow a face of the red peril which threatened america and the free world. but there's hope to win over public opinion. he opened a central american information bureau organized press visit and suggested articles
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to befriended publishers. so the nature really. understood it you know it's not what is happening it's the story you tell about what is happening that that is that is the reality and that's something he was greatly admired in study did not see germany who carried part truth to another. to another level and now we've we see in our present poured with. social networks and much else the story intensifying. with a word severe consequences for for democracy but we could already see where we was
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going to lead with episodes like honestly my truth. the time was right for edward bernays power play in january nine hundred fifty three dwight eisenhower became the new president of the united states. help me. prize in heart advocated a frontal offensive against communism. he placed to brothers in keepers john foster dulles became secretary of state allen dulles head of the cia both had been legal advisors to the united fruit company. the new ambassador to the united nations was senator henry cabot lodge a faithful lobbyist for the company's interests. kids family were longstanding shareholders. they were all men with an
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open ear for edward bernays messages. in august one nine hundred fifty three allen dulles as cia introduced new methods in iran it overturned the government of mohammad mosaddegh who had nationalized his country's petrol industry he was accused of communist collusion. in the success of the operation in iran convinced the eisenhower administration the cia was given a green light to intervene in guatemala. they operate. it was named success. edward bernays efforts were bearing fruit.
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but. the cia supported an opponent of the outer bands regime. you know out of my ass. he became a leader of a national liberation army trained by the cia. the plantations of the united fruit company became really a guard base and. in june one nine hundred fifty four the capital quite a model city was bond. over power of how kobol our parents resigned on the twenty seventh of june in a radio broadcast. for the use communism as an excuse. but the truth is different. in reality it's about financial interests. those of the united
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fruit company and other north american monopolies. they've invested in latin america they fear the example of guatemala could spread to other nations. who are already. becoming president with support from the united states custody or out of mass cancelled the measures taken by the outer bands government. land reform was abandoned land was returned to united fruit. but neither stability nor security for life. after the coup what a mile it was thrown into a civil war that continued until nineteen ninety six. it left more than one hundred thousand dead a million displaced and tens of thousands missing. the maya indians
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were among the victims there was talk of genocide. fearing financial loss the united fruit company blocked all reforms in guatemala taking into account the risk of fueling younger among the people. in january nine hundred fifty nine cuban revolutionaries talk of honor and overthrew the back east a regime. evan estell che guevara fidel castro's ally was in guatemala. he had been radicalized by the overthrow of the cold war out of ben's he no longer believed in reform but in revolution. the a.
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in one nine hundred sixty feet telecaster nationalized all north american businesses. the i. was. sure we i. this time both edward but days and samuel is a maori what powerless. to marry died in one thousand nine hundred sixty one his empire didn't outlive him for long the united fruit company disappeared in successive takeovers and mergers it was replaced by chiquita brands. infected by disease the call me share of bananas that had make united fruit rich disappeared at the end of the sixties. another banana emerged the cavendish. it had been developed by
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a small competitor soon to become an agricultural giant the new leader of the banana market don't. feel. like. according to latest reports the cavendish banana may in its turn be on its way out. joan employees tried in vain to sue the company for poisoning by pesticides. chiquita brands the heir to united fruit is facing court action accused of financing paramilitary groups in colombia. that was the story of a free bus simple free to. come to
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a banana to buy their dead weight when they are black with brown and. then i. am in. value and my. father called the pain i was but by now and i'd like to climb it up the batty very popular probably. never been a bad. more intrigue international talk show journalists discuss the topic of the week chancellor merkel answer back to the war tensions mount in germany around the question is can she come up with a solution to prevent. so go one from being blown up potts find out on quadriga coming up shortly. quadriga
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thirty minutes w. . take who do you think is going to be most of. all the matches for all the scores. two thousand eight hundred soccer world cup on d w news. climate change. waste. pollution. isn't it time for good news eco africa people and projects that are changing our environment for the better it's up to us to make a difference let's inspire other. people when it comes to
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farming magazine. d w. this is d w news coming to you live from berlin not go all the retreat the head of an emergency can you sum it all migration german chancellor with drawls a draft accord she hoped would clinch this with migration deal this after she clashed with the italian prime minister plus four central european countries snubbed their cold with a boycott also coming out.


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